The left-handed opener fractured a joint on his left hand in the fourth ODI against South Africa, but at least won’t need a surgery.
"The timeframe is still a bit loose at the moment but the good news is he doesn't require surgery as it sits at the moment,” said McDonald.
“There will be an extended period of time out and we've just got to weigh up whether that time (out) falls with an option to carry him through the front half of the World Cup.
"There's no doubt he won't be available for the front half, so that's a decision we'll have to make for the final 15(-player squad). But I can't give you an exact time frame."
Mitchell Marsh will take the opening slot in the absence of Head. The hard-hitting all-rounder opened the innings in the fifth ODI against South Africa and slammed 71 off 56 deliveries. Overall as well, Marsh averages 88.33 and has a strike rate of 129.9 as an opener.
But when it comes to replacing Head in the squad, Marnus Labuschagne could come into the mix. The middle-order batter, who came in as a concussion substitute for Cameron Green during the South Africa series, is averaging 70.75 in his last five innings.
"I can't talk on behalf of the selection panel and lock him away in the World Cup 15 but it's no doubt looking likely," McDonald said of Labuschagne's World Cup hopes.
"He's made a significant shift in his intent at the crease and putting the bowlers under pressure (more) than he was potentially 12 months ago. He's struck at around 100 strike rate in this series.
"We know Marnus is a quality player and he probably didn't have the 12-18 months in one-day cricket that he would have liked.
"But he's no doubt taken that opportunity with both hands and there's no doubt he'll be front and centre when it comes to that 15-man squad down the track."
Nathan Ellis and Sean Abbott have also picked up injuries during the South Africa series and Aaron Hardie will be travelling to India as cover for the two. Australia are scheduled to play three ODIs in India, starting on Friday (September 22).